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Parts of a Cell

Although cells are diverse, all cells have some parts in common.

○ The Membrane (wall) is a protective outer covering that protects the cell and regulates the interaction between the cell and its environment. The membrane is selectively permeable to allow desirable content such as food into the cell.

○ The Golgi Apparatus is a membrane-bound organelle found in most cells. It is responsible for packaging proteins into vesicles prior to secretion.

○ The Mitochondrion is an organelle that produces the energy necessary for the cell's survival and functioning. It breaks down glucose into an energy molecule known as ATP, which is used to fuel several other cellular processes.

○ The Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a continuous membrane system that forms a series of flattened sacs inside the cytoplasm and serves multiple functions. These organelles are especially important in the synthesis, folding, modification, and transport of proteins.

○ The Cytoplasm is a gel-like material inside the cell where most of the cell's life processes take place. It holds and supports all of the cell’s components.

○ The Nucleus is the control center of the cell that controls reproduction and contains its genetic material (DNA).

○ The Organelles includes any of the various components of the cell, for example, ribosomes, mitochondria, lysosomes etc.

○ The Chloroplasts are the equivalent of mitochondria in plant cells. They serve as a site of photosynthesis, which is the process by which sunlight energy is converted into chemical energy for growth.

○ The Ribosomes are organelles that form proteins inside the cell.

○ The Lysosomes contains digestive chemicals (enzymes) that help break down cell waste and prepare it for excretion.

○ The Vacuoles are the equivalent of lysosomes in plant cells

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